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ارضاع الطفل مفيد

seinاظهرت مجموعة من الدراسات العلمية ان ارضاع الطفل لوقت طويل من شأنه ان ينقذ حياة اكثر من 800 الف طفل سنويا ويوفر مليارات الدولارات على اقتصادات دول العالم بفضل فوائده في الحماية من عدد من الامراض التي تصيب الصغار والامهات.

وجاء في مقال نشرته مجلته “ذي لانسيت” الطبية البريطانية ان “طفلا واحدا فقط من بين كل خمسة اطفال يتم الرضاعة حتى الشهر الثاني عشر في الدول الغنية، فيما طفل واحد من بين ثلاثة فقط يتم الرضاعة حتى الشهر السادس في الدول المتوسطة والفقيرة”.

وعلى ذلك، فان ملايين الاطفال في العالم محرومون من الرضاعة الكافية، بحسب الباحثين.

ويؤمن حليب الام كل الحاجات الغذائية للطفل في الاشهر الستة الاولى من عمره، ولذا توصي منظمة الصحة العالمية بان يقتصر غذاء الطفل في اشهره الستة الاولى على حليب الام، وان يستمر الارضاع عامين، وهو ما لا يحظى به اكثر من 40 % من اطفال العام اليوم بحسب المنظمة الدولية.

وقال الباحثون في المقال الذي ارتكز على سلسلة من الابحاث ان الارضاع لوقت طويل “يمكن ان ينقذ حياة اكثر من 800 الف طفل سنويا في العالم، اي ما يعادل 13 % من وفيات الاطفال دون السنتين”.

ومن شأنه ايضا ان يجنب عشرين الف سيدة الاصابة بسرطان قاتل في الثدي.

– تخفيض مخاطر السرطان –

خلافا للافكار “المغلوطة السائدة على نطاق واسع”، فان فوائد الارضاع لا تقتصر على الدول الفقيرة.

وكتب الباحثون “اظهرت الدراسات بوضوح ان الارضاع ينقذ الارواح ويساعد اقتصادات كل الدول، الفقيرة منها والغنية”.

ودعا الباحثون بالتالي الى الحض على الارضاع على مستوى العالم.

وقالوا “في الدول الغنية، يؤدي الارضاع الى تخفيض الوفيات المفاجئة في صفوف الرضع بنسبة تزيد عن الثلث. اما في البلدان الفقيرة او ذات الدخل المتوسط، فيمكن تجنب نصف الاصابات بالاسهال وثلث الاصابات بالتهاب الجهاز التنفسي بالارضاع”.

ومن شأن الارضاع على المدى الطويل ان يساهم ايضا في تقليص مخاطر الاصابة بالسمنة والسكري لدى الاطفال.

اما لدى الامهات، فمن شأنه ان يقلص نسبة الاصابة بسرطان الثدي والمبيض.

وقال الباحثون ان رفع نسبة الارضاع التام في الاشهر الستة الاولى الى 90 % في الولايات المتحدة والصين والبرازيل والى 45 % في بريطانيا، يساهم في تخفيض نفقات علاج الامراض الشائعة لدى الاطفال مثل الاسهال والالتهاب الرئوي والربو.

ويمكن للولايات المتحدة بالتالي ان تحقق بفضل الارضاع الكافي توفيرا بقيمة في 2,45 مليار دولار في نفقاتها الصحية، اما بريطانيا فيمكن ان توفر 29,5 مليون دولار، والصين 223 مليونا والبرازيل ستة ملايين.

ومن بين الدول الغنية، تسجل بريطانيا وايرلندا والدنمارك ادنى نسب ارضاع للاطفال في الاشهر الاثني عشر الاولى، تنحسر الى ما دون 1 و2 و3 % على التوالي.

واستنادا الى دراسة سابقة نشرت في اذار/مارس من العام 2015 واشارت الى فوائد الارضاع على الذكاء والمقدرات الدراسية وما يعكسه ذلك على الوضع الاقتصادي، توصل الباحثون الى ان عدم الارضاع الكافي شكل خسارة بقيمة 302 مليار دولار على اقتصاد العالم في العام 2012.

وندد الباحثون بالاعلانات التجارية للحليب المصنع التي تبدد برأيهم جهود السلطات في تشجيع الارضاع.

واكدوا على قدرة الدول على تشجيع الارضاع مشيرين الى ان البرازيل مثلا تمكنت من رفع المعدل المتوسط لمدة الارضاع من 2,5 شهر بين العامين 1974 و1975، الى 14 شهرا بين العامين 2006 و2007 بفضل سياساتها الصحية وحملات التوعية.

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