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هل تسرب الفيروس من مختبر سري في ووهان؟؟

في عام 2017 حذر علماء أميركيون من أن فيروساً يشبه السارس يمكن أن ينتقل خارج مختبر سري أنشئ في ووهان بالصين لدراسة  مسببات الأمراض في العالم. أما الآن وقد أصاب فيروس كورونا الشبيه بالسارس مئات الاشخاص في ووهان تحديداً وانتشر إلى 10 دول أخرى على الأقل، وتوفي 25 في ووهان والمقاطعات القريبة فان التحذير ياخذ كل معانيه.

وقامت الصين ببناء أول مجموعة مكونة من خمسة مختبرات الطبية في ووهان عام 2017، بغرض دراسة الأمراض الأكثر خطورة، بما في ذلك فيروسا إيبولا والسارس.
وقال تيم تريفان، مستشار في السلامة الأحيائية، لصحيفة «نيتشر» في ذلك العام، عندما كان المختبر على أعتاب الافتتاح، إنه قلق من أن ثقافة الصين قد تجعل المعهد غير آمن، مؤكداً ضرورة أن يشعر المرء في هذه المؤسسات «بحرية التحدث وتبادل المعلومات»
وفي الواقع، لقد انتشر فيروس السارس عدة مرات من مختبر في بكين، وفقا لمقال «نيتشر».
ويقع مختبر ووهان الوطني للسلامة الأحيائية على بعد حوالي 20 ميلاً من سوق هوانان للمأكولات البحرية، وتساءل البعض عما إذا كان مركز تفشي فيروس كورونا المفاجئ مصادفة، لكن المجتمع العلمي يعتقد حالياً أن الفيروس قد انتقل إلى البشر من بعض الحيوانات.
لكن «في هذه المرحلة، لا يوجد سبب ليكون لدينا شكوك حول ما إذا كان للمنشأة أي علاقة بتفشي المرض، إلى جانب كونها مسؤولة عن تسلسل الجينوم الحيوي الذي يسمح للأطباء بتشخيصه»، على حد قول الدكتور ريتشارد إيبرايت، عالم الأحياء الدقيقة بجامعة «روتغرز» الأميركية.
وكان هذا أول مختبر على الإطلاق في البلاد مصمما لتلبية معايير سلامة الكائنات الحية من المستوى 4، وهو أعلى مستوى في مجال المخاطر البيولوجية، ما يعني أنه مؤهل للتعامل مع أخطر مسببات الأمراض.
ويجب أن تكون هذه المختبرات مجهزة ببزات خاصة ومعدات محكمة الغلق تحصر الفيروسات والبكتيريا التي يمكن أن تنتقل عن طريق الهواء إلى صناديق يصل إليها العلماء باستخدام قفازات خاصة ومناسبة.
وهناك حوالي 54 من هذه المختبرات في جميع أنحاء العالم.
وعند افتتاح المختبر، خطط المعنيون للبدء في تنفيذ مشروع لا يتطلب سوى احتياطات السلامة من الدرجة الثالثة، وهو دراسة فيروس يحمله القراد ويسبب الحمى النزفية في القرم والكونغو. ويعتبر هذا المرض قاتلا للغاية؛ حيث يقضي على 10 إلى 40 في المائة من المصابين به.
وفي يناير (كانون الثاني) عام 2018، تم تشغيل المختبر «لإجراء تجارب عالمية على مسببات الأمراض التي تحتاج لمعايير سلامة من الدرجة الرابعة».
وبعد انتشار فيروس السارس بسبب «تسرب» من مختبر آخر في عام 2004، عمل المسؤولون الصينيون على تحسين معايير السلامة، ولكن أيضاً على توسيع قدرة البلاد على مواصلة دراسة الفيروسات ذاتها التي تسربت من مختبراتها.

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