الرئيسية » ملفات »

全球化游戏规则因疫情而改变 企业回流成趋势

Hsiao-Ying Tsai
武汉肺炎疫情冲击全球经济供应链,也暴露了各国过度依赖中国的致命危害,更加深了国际对中国的不信任,多国政府祭出“去中国化”对策,打算撤商或阻止中国趁乱入股国内企业。从亚洲的日本到美洲的美国以及欧洲的欧盟国家,製造业离开中国、回流母国开始成为趋势

日本经济产业省推出经济纾困方案,编列“供应链改革”预算,协助日企回流,或是将产线移往其他国家,17日公布,首批符合资助迁离中国内地的日本企业名单共计57宗,补助总金额将为6.53亿美元,其中包括生产口罩与消毒用品的厂商爱丽思欧雅马(Iris Ohyama)、酒精类清洁用品製造商Saraya和鸿海旗下的夏普(Sharp)等

美国为让企业从中国回流,提出“100%替企业回流成本买单”策略,为想从中国回流的美企支付搬家费,从厂房、设备到智慧财产、装修,将回流支出百分之百直接费用化,为美企搬回国的成本买单,盼能进一步与中国脱钩。不过.製造业集中高科技、航空、生化和军工产业的美国,一般製造业空洞化,加上劳工和环保法规严格、各方面成本高,使製造业回流缺乏竞争力,尤其市场经济下,企业从经济效益考量布局,政府难强制所有海外企业回国,也不可能提供足够补偿来帮助转场,扭曲市场机制。根据顾问公司科尔尼(Kearney) 的统计,中国是美企鲑鱼返乡的最大损失国,而中国的损失,在亚洲大量被越南取代,在美国则被墨西哥取代

欧盟商会主席伍德克指出,许多在中国经营的中小企业已濒临破产;疫情的爆發为跨国企业上了一课,市场不可预测性可能导致一些公司从单一布局,转向更广泛地区的多元化经营。欧盟竞争专员维斯塔格(Margrethe Vestager)也呼吁,各国政府应该加强投资有战略价值的企业,以阻止中国趁疫情之乱低价入股。从中期看,众多产业不一定要重新建立供应链,但会使供应链更加多元,而为降低生产成本,欧商回流将以东欧国家为首选

法国经济部长勒麦尔(Bruno Le Maire)更直言,疫情是全球化“游戏规则的改变者”,凸显了各国对中国的不负责任和非理性依赖,尤其在医药健康领域和汽车製造业,必须重新审视全球供应关係,他强调 :“我们不能在药物材料方面继续让自己对中国有八十%至八十五%的依赖”,并在7月8日重申 “再工业化是重中之重,企业回迁是重中之重” 。他呼吁雷诺(Renault)等法国汽车製造商,在向政府申请金援度过难关的同时,有必要考虑将生产线移回母国

9日普华永道(PricewaterhouseCoopers,简称PwC)国际会计师事务所公布了一项针对战略采购回归本土的研究报告,对医药健康、农业食品、电气和工业制造四个产业的生产消费链进行研究分析,甄别出113类“敏感”产品,该研究项目得到了法国国家采购委员会的支持

全球的疫情加剧,成为美中经济脱钩和“反全球化”新动力,更多的社会压力要求部分战略领域搬迁如医疗供应或其他医疗保健需求,并确保自给自足,製造业也面临侧重多元化生产基地、工业数码化及自动化,欧洲与美国的跨国企业若确认产业链脱钩的战略目标,新的採购政策将会彻底改变既有的产业架构

虽说供应链更加多元,企业回流也将成趋势,但要企业完全撤离中国这个世界工厂,恐怕还有多方考量。美国商会会长托马斯就指出,借武汉肺炎疫情将供应链迁出中国的努力可能损害美国自身的经济,何况古有明训,商人无祖国

اقرأ للكاتب نفس:

اُكتب تعليقك (Your comment):

تغريدات خارج السرب

إعلان

خاص «برس - نت»

صفحة رأي

مدونات الكتاب

آخر التعليقات

    أخبار بووم على الفيسبوك

    تابعنا على تويتر

    We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners.
    Cookies settings
    Accept
    Privacy & Cookie policy
    Privacy & Cookies policy
    Cookie name Active

    Privacy Policy

    What information do we collect?

    We collect information from you when you register on our site or place an order. When ordering or registering on our site, as appropriate, you may be asked to enter your: name, e-mail address or mailing address.

    What do we use your information for?

    Any of the information we collect from you may be used in one of the following ways: To personalize your experience (your information helps us to better respond to your individual needs) To improve our website (we continually strive to improve our website offerings based on the information and feedback we receive from you) To improve customer service (your information helps us to more effectively respond to your customer service requests and support needs) To process transactions Your information, whether public or private, will not be sold, exchanged, transferred, or given to any other company for any reason whatsoever, without your consent, other than for the express purpose of delivering the purchased product or service requested. To administer a contest, promotion, survey or other site feature To send periodic emails The email address you provide for order processing, will only be used to send you information and updates pertaining to your order.

    How do we protect your information?

    We implement a variety of security measures to maintain the safety of your personal information when you place an order or enter, submit, or access your personal information. We offer the use of a secure server. All supplied sensitive/credit information is transmitted via Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology and then encrypted into our Payment gateway providers database only to be accessible by those authorized with special access rights to such systems, and are required to?keep the information confidential. After a transaction, your private information (credit cards, social security numbers, financials, etc.) will not be kept on file for more than 60 days.

    Do we use cookies?

    Yes (Cookies are small files that a site or its service provider transfers to your computers hard drive through your Web browser (if you allow) that enables the sites or service providers systems to recognize your browser and capture and remember certain information We use cookies to help us remember and process the items in your shopping cart, understand and save your preferences for future visits, keep track of advertisements and compile aggregate data about site traffic and site interaction so that we can offer better site experiences and tools in the future. We may contract with third-party service providers to assist us in better understanding our site visitors. These service providers are not permitted to use the information collected on our behalf except to help us conduct and improve our business. If you prefer, you can choose to have your computer warn you each time a cookie is being sent, or you can choose to turn off all cookies via your browser settings. Like most websites, if you turn your cookies off, some of our services may not function properly. However, you can still place orders by contacting customer service. Google Analytics We use Google Analytics on our sites for anonymous reporting of site usage and for advertising on the site. If you would like to opt-out of Google Analytics monitoring your behaviour on our sites please use this link (https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout/)

    Do we disclose any information to outside parties?

    We do not sell, trade, or otherwise transfer to outside parties your personally identifiable information. This does not include trusted third parties who assist us in operating our website, conducting our business, or servicing you, so long as those parties agree to keep this information confidential. We may also release your information when we believe release is appropriate to comply with the law, enforce our site policies, or protect ours or others rights, property, or safety. However, non-personally identifiable visitor information may be provided to other parties for marketing, advertising, or other uses.

    Registration

    The minimum information we need to register you is your name, email address and a password. We will ask you more questions for different services, including sales promotions. Unless we say otherwise, you have to answer all the registration questions. We may also ask some other, voluntary questions during registration for certain services (for example, professional networks) so we can gain a clearer understanding of who you are. This also allows us to personalise services for you. To assist us in our marketing, in addition to the data that you provide to us if you register, we may also obtain data from trusted third parties to help us understand what you might be interested in. This ‘profiling’ information is produced from a variety of sources, including publicly available data (such as the electoral roll) or from sources such as surveys and polls where you have given your permission for your data to be shared. You can choose not to have such data shared with the Guardian from these sources by logging into your account and changing the settings in the privacy section. After you have registered, and with your permission, we may send you emails we think may interest you. Newsletters may be personalised based on what you have been reading on theguardian.com. At any time you can decide not to receive these emails and will be able to ‘unsubscribe’. Logging in using social networking credentials If you log-in to our sites using a Facebook log-in, you are granting permission to Facebook to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth and location which will then be used to form a Guardian identity. You can also use your picture from Facebook as part of your profile. This will also allow us and Facebook to share your, networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Facebook account settings. If you remove the Guardian app from your Facebook settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a Google log-in, you grant permission to Google to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth, sex and location which we will then use to form a Guardian identity. You may use your picture from Google as part of your profile. This also allows us to share your networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Google account settings. If you remove the Guardian from your Google settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a twitter log-in, we receive your avatar (the small picture that appears next to your tweets) and twitter username.

    Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Compliance

    We are in compliance with the requirements of COPPA (Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act), we do not collect any information from anyone under 13 years of age. Our website, products and services are all directed to people who are at least 13 years old or older.

    Updating your personal information

    We offer a ‘My details’ page (also known as Dashboard), where you can update your personal information at any time, and change your marketing preferences. You can get to this page from most pages on the site – simply click on the ‘My details’ link at the top of the screen when you are signed in.

    Online Privacy Policy Only

    This online privacy policy applies only to information collected through our website and not to information collected offline.

    Your Consent

    By using our site, you consent to our privacy policy.

    Changes to our Privacy Policy

    If we decide to change our privacy policy, we will post those changes on this page.
    Save settings
    Cookies settings
    Translate »